Fire stairs should be of high quality, durable and nadezhnoySegodnya used stairs can be of various types and are created as custom-designed and standard. It is worth a little more focus on the kinds of fire escapes. The article also will talk about the types of device and the destination. In any building, inside or on the facade necessarily fire escape (PL) must be installed, firefighters must have manual devices to get inside a burning building.
The types of fire escapes: types of devices
In accordance with the Federal Law of July 22, 2008 № 123-FZ "Technical Regulations on fire safety requirements", firefighters are called ladders, which are designed for operation in case of fire and rescue activities. This definition means that the submarines are designed to raise the fire on the roof of a building during a fire, not to evacuate people from the building.
There are several types of fire escapes, which are divided according to the size of structures
Depending on what height does rise, the submarine can be vertical and marches, that is, with the landing between the spans. size requirements are contained in NPB 245-2001 and GOST 5325-2009.
On the size of the device is divided into the following types:
- Vertical without fences.
- Vertical, has fence.
- Rescue march.
Evacuation stairs (AL) are intended for the safety of people, for emergency measures during a fire. EL may be only marches with an inclination of 45 degrees. On the one hand, the design for the fire brigade of fighters, through which they can stretch fire hoses in the building and can be reached at any building site. On the other - types of ladders that are used by children and the elderly, provide a mass evacuation of people to fresh air and in a safe place in a short time. Defensive line of fire should only deal with professional fighters fire protection.
The main types of ladders for fire safety: important points
The main requirement to all types of submarines is that they should all go out on the territory adjacent to the building or to pass through the lobby. He must be separated by partitions with doors from the corridor space adjacent to it. Emergency exit from the basement and the ground floor should be constructed separately from the stairwell of the building cells, important as it is possible to cut off the path faster.
Before installing a fire escape, you must make a plan of its placement
The location of each door must be specified in the plan and be located in an accessible place for people, in the course of an escape route.
Otherwise, when the output is set to the passage through the common staircase, it must have a separate exit outwardly:
- The building;
- In town.
Must be deaf firewalls. Due to the proper organization of the fire escape, evacuation is quick, no crowds and congestion, allowing you to save people and eliminate the source of fire. On the subject written by more than one abstract, but still need to talk about the submarine again.
Hand fire escapes: Assault Submarine
Manual fire ladders - this is an indispensable attribute of the Emergencies Ministry fire without scaling ladders work fire fighters can not work. Using SHL is necessary for evacuation and fire-fighting, for fast entering the building from the outside.
Popular hand-held fire escapes
Depending on the task at hand can be divided into 3 types of hand-PL:
In this section a little more about the hook ladder. Structure 2 is parallel to the bowstring 12 steps and metal hook. Hand-mounted assault submarine works well when lifting, lowering the fire on the balcony and a window or balconies of high-rise buildings. Also, if you need to ground attack can be used in a fixed position on the roof of the building with steep slopes.
When is the evacuation of the affected people using the SHL in P44T impossible to her at the same time there were 2 adults - up to a maximum weight of 200 kg. Today, the consumer and fire departments often use models of submarines Cal or DWG, and demand combined model.
Purpose, types and device manual fire stairs: stair-stick
Manual fire ladders are designed to fire brigade in rescue actions could freely go up and down.
Often fire ladder manual presented as a special of attack
As mentioned, manual fire stairs (carrying) can be in the form of:
- of attack;
It can be manufactured of wood or aluminum. Steel or wood ladder have a simple design. Ladders come in a complete set of equipment of fire trucks that brought them to the scene of the fire, which is evacuated. A typical ladder-stick is designed for lifting fighters fire department on the first floor.
Application is possible only in a small height is needed for work inside the building. Withs consists of 2 and 8 steps. Foldable design, as the production involves hinging steps. Foldaway ladder when folded resembles a stick and it can be used in case of fire for beating plaster and similar work.
Three-knee ladder fire
Fold-out three-section ladders needed to lift the fire brigade fighters in box 3 floors or on the roof of a 2-storey building. In the unfolded state of fire-technical equipment can be lifted on the device.
Advantages of three-knee ladder fire are as practical and convenient use
Extension ladder consists of pull-outs:
- the lower;
Also it includes a displacement mechanism, extension and fixation (nodes). In nominating each foot slides over the bowstring and the support wall 2 are bottom and top of the structure. The nomination is done by the rope, which should be moved through the cross and the mobile unit.
To stop the extension, release the rope enough. Before the work it is necessary to carefully study the installation rules. When there is an experience, the three-section ladders installed quickly. You can enjoy a backwater. To remove, close the ladder is necessary to move the rope and slowly reduce the forces on it. Run smoothly lowering the knee. This should be done very carefully.
Fire escapes on the roof: the manufacture of the material
Usually, fixed roof, work ladders and catwalks are made of galvanized metal and paint resistant to weather events paint. "Decorate" paint required. PL on the roof of a metal with the inner invisible part coated with zinc which protects the structure from corrosion.
If you decide to install the fire escape to the roof, you should consider room design and its construction
All structural elements firmly connected, you can make the installation of any length. Latest owners property ladder for the roof made of aluminum. Their purpose, too, and the advantage of the strength and ease of construction.
devices must conform to:
- Safety rules.
You should definitely consider the design of the house, set the door to the attic. Hatch shall be located between the roof and the top floor, to him shall be easily accessible. The drawings, the project is necessary to consider at the stage when the estimate of when the foundation is laid. When the construction was assigned, we completed the installation, it must be experienced.
If you have no experience, it is best to contact a professional company that will be able to repair the old fire escapes, paint, perform the replacement parts. In such firms, there is always the directory where you offer a wide range of finished designs and services. Fire escapes is important to arrange on each building, whether in kindergarten, in an office building. Some owners of multi-level apartments where between floors spiral staircases arrange submarines in the balcony of the apartment. In addition, the buildings must be emergency exits.
Stairs metal fire: how to paint
Many will wonder what color and composition of the paint fire escape. PL paint is needed to protect the structure from rust. History tells that during the time of the Soviet Union used the enamel PF-115. Today use zinc coating or special enamel ground. It can be used overseas coloring material, and may the domestic.
When choosing paint for the fire escape, you must consider its stability and high quality
By specifically enamel coating benefits include:
- Resistance to rust.
- Easy to use.
- High quality coatings.
If the distance to the submarine does not differ a great length, in the staining can be used telescopic ladder ladder. Today buy paint and any fire-fighting equipment can be in any city, and Salavat certainly no exception.
Hinged ladder fire rescue
To use the means of salvation, any special skills not required, the standard exercises. Experts recommend carefully coordinate their actions, the remaining process is understood intuitively and is no different from raising or lowering of the other ladder. Evacuation of the hinged ladder rescue is not carried out.
The simplest variant of rescue fire escape is a hinged design
Do not evacuate:
- the elderly;
Varieties of fire escapes (video)
To evacuate using mechanized device. In an extreme case, the evacuation can be carried out "node" of experienced lifeguards.
Examples of fire ladders (photo)