In the calculation of any ladder, there are certain nuances that are primarily responsible for the safety of zhiteleyLestnitsa - is an indispensable tool for moving between the floors of residential and commercial premises. As a rule, the owners of multi-storey private homes and cottages prefer turning staircase. This design saves a square meter in the apartment, looks impressive and fully perform its basic function - lifting and lowering. How to calculate the ladder depending on its type - read the article.

## Calculation of stair steps to the second floor: the optimum height and width of the steps

Calculation of stair steps leading to the second floor of a private house or apartment depends primarily on the type of structure - normal (straight) or curved (T-, U-shaped, screw). To calculate the stairs there are general formulas, the main values of which vary depending on the type of ladder.

In order to calculate all the dimensions of the ladder, one main selected (either width or height level) value and, based on the remaining parameters calculated

In most cases, used to calculate the formula based on the stride length: 2 + x height tread riser height = 60 cm.

In the calculations should focus primarily on family composition (the presence of children, the elderly). So, children do not get too inflated risers, and for the elderly will be difficult to use the stairs to the shallow tread.

## How to calculate the stair step, knowing the length and height of the structure

One of the main indicators of the convenience and comfort of the stairs is a number of stages. Optimal for one flight of stairs is considered to be the number of steps in the range of 3 to 16. A smaller number increases the likelihood of tripping, and more - to get tired when climbing.

Standard steps for the calculation of any type of ladder can be made, knowing the construction length and height of the riser

**To calculate the length of the staircase, you must:**

- Measure the distance between the floors of the first and second floors (not forget about the thickness of the ceiling, which must enter into a common ladder length);
- Divide the result by the height of the riser.

Height of riser, according to GOST should be within 12-20 cm., And selected according to the type and purpose of the structure.

## Construct a ladder "duck step": the calculation step ladder

"Duck step" - this is the perfect design for a small-sized room: for the organization of such a ladder would be sufficient to 2.5 meters in length and 80 cm in width.. Compactness ladder is achieved by special design steps, which increases the width of the tread at positions corresponding step.

Staircase "duck step" and is able to save the cost of building materials

**To design such as "duck step" was comfortable and safe, you should follow these recommendations:**

- For direct optimal designs will be the width of the tread steps in place step - 300 mm .;
- The height of the step should be increased to 15 cm minimum.;
- Risers should be used for the wooden stairs only;
- The transition from the broad to the narrow part of the stage should be smooth, metal structures allowed the use of pedals steps without having a constricted portion;
- To calculate the length of the curved, spiral staircases be applied formula to calculate the length of the structure with the angle of rotation of 360 degrees: l = 2πr.

formula is suitable for calculating the length "duck" step: step height squared + step width = 65 cm.

## How to make a calculation of the stairs with steps 90 and 180 degrees

The most popular type of staircase, which occurs in two-story houses and apartments - T-shaped - a design with zabezhnymi, steps or rotary platform forming with the adjacent angle of 90 degrees walls.

Feature design swivel ladder is that at different angle areas different design step width: larger at the outer edge of the stairs, at the inner - less.

The easiest way to calculate the L-shaped structure - the method of proportion. It is based on a graphical planning the number and width of the steps on the corner portion and placing a uniform structure with respect to the remaining basic elements. This method does not require solving mathematical problems and heavy construction of geometrically complex drawings. A march and size determines the steps of the staircase of state standards and "standards and rules of construction."

Tread Width stair steps, in accordance with the GOST should be 250-350 mm

**In order to produce a simulation, you will need:**

- Take a blank sheet of paper and draw on it two perpendicular lines. Distance from the point of intersection of the lines to the outer corner of the sheet must be equal to the planned width of the march in a ratio of 1: 100. We denote the distance segment O - O1. According to GOST width ladder march bound to be at least 80 cm. Be sure to note in the figure and a thickness withs, otherwise calculations are obtained with an accuracy and assemble the ladder will not be easy.
- Define the boundaries of stair steps, depending on the length of the construction and personal preferences of the owners of the apartments. Worth to remember that the lower steps to the turn should not be less than two.
- Draw the middle of the march line. For the L-shaped structure, in turns, the line should be a little biased towards the inner corner.
- Determine the number of winders and denote centering the drawing. For this purpose, the width of the march should be delayed in both sides of the tread width divided by two (step tread width at the narrowest area must not be less than 14 cm, in the midline -. Less than 20 cm.). Through the data points - spend sidelines central winder stairs.
- Mark on the center line of march, the location of the remaining steps.

proportion method can be calculated as L-shaped staircase with steps and a platform. Calculations for the design of a rotary stages with an angle of 180 degrees occurs in a similar manner.

Calculation of rotary stairs specifically under the conditions of the room can be done with online programs, such as designer on "Stolyarych" company website.

## Calculation of stair steps with zabezhnymi using calculator

Today, the majority of construction sites offer calculators, the principle of which is based on the introduction of the original values, and providing the result as text with the recommendations or the image-drawing.

Recommendations and drawings are provided in accordance with the parameters that determine GOST.

With the help of online calculator to quickly and accurately calculate the turning stairs

In order to calculate the angle of stairs, you must select the kind of structure (spiral, straight or angle of 180 degrees) and enter certain parameters.

**Namely:**

- The height and length of the ceiling opening;
- Estimated width ladder march;
- The total number of stages;
- Estimated number of turning steps;
- The number of lower level.

Most calculators offers, as well, to determine the height of the steps on the floor.

Calculate the angular staircases help and a computer program that does not require an Internet connection to perform the calculations and is able to provide both two-dimensional and three-dimensional model of the rotating structure.

## The calculation steps of the staircase (video)

Today, in order to design a comfortable and safe pivoting ladder is not necessary to seek the services of construction companies. To do this, you can use simple formulas, calculators online or off-line programs that create the model of the stairs, which will fully comply with both your preferences and safety standards. You have to choose the most easy and convenient way to create a comfortable and stairs that perfectly fit into the interior of your apartment!