Ladder: design and user manual
Ladder should be practical and high quality because it can be easily used both at home and for remontaPristavnye stairs have a solid structure. Made of metal or wood. She will need you at the cottage or at home, to fulfill a number of specific actions of some. You can use it to paint the ceiling, wash windows or hang something on the wall (watch, mirror). They are used even in the professional building at the sites. These stairs are different in length and number of stages.
Stage ladder: the optimum size
Important and responsible process is the design of the staircase structure. In the manufacture of the drawing itself and stairs should take into account a number of important parameters. GOST parameters should be used if you are making the stairs with his hands. If they are met, you can use the product without any problems, and it will be safe.
You need to correctly calculate the step ladder. This distance between the stages. To do this, take into account all the rules SNIP and step adult.
Before you start making ladder should make its drawing correctly and competently
It is important to calculate the following:
- The width of the stage;
- The length of the stage;
- Distance between the stages.
The distance between the beams depends on the ladder angle. To do this, take into account all parameters. Tilting ladder is 65-80 degrees relative to the plane wall.
Ladders have a large slope, so parameters can be approximate and not strictly in accordance with GOST. The main thing that you need to consider the distance between the steps and the proportions of the stairs.
Typically, the distance between the beams is 35 cm. Sometimes more or less than 5-7 cm. Closely spaced stages can make a ladder inconvenient to use.
Proper use: User ladders
Ladder indispensable item. People often use it for domestic purposes. But worth to remember, that it can be used safely, it is necessary to remember precautions. This will help manual. They allow you to prevent injuries and falls.
Working with a ladder, it is important to remember the simple rules of its operation
You should pay attention to the following points:
- Between a ladder and the vertical plane should be a certain angle;
- The lower part of the ladder must not slide on the floor / ground;
- There should be no lateral slip;
- The weather conditions must be suitable for outdoor use.
Accidents at work with a ladder - a frequent phenomenon. It is worth to remember all the security measures. Human fall from the ladder can occur for many reasons: the shoes slippery, inconvenient steps (round profile), dirty stage structure damage or wear, a large load.
To prevent a fall from a ladder, you should check the integrity of its structure before work. Do not use a ladder if it has any defects.
What should be the length of the ladder
The length of the ladder plays a big role. The structure must not be too low or high. Optimal ladder height is two meters. If you work at a height of 1.3 meters, it is necessary to additionally use a safety belt. It is attached to the building structure (to a wall or other vertical surface).
The length of the ladders should not be more than five meters. This is the maximum length for the type of stairs.
ladder length must comply with all the requirements above written.
In the manufacture of wooden stairs addl kindly consider optimum number of stages that depends on the length of the structure
When calculating the height of the ladder take into account:
- The number of stages;
- Distance between the stages.
To work in an apartment or a house using a ladder, the height of which is not more than two meters. Use the stairs over a given length does not make sense, since the height of ceilings in apartments is no more than 3.2 m.
Choose the angle ladder
Ladder should be set correctly. Otherwise, you will fall along with it. So you do not fall down the stairs, you need to know safety, producing work at a height.
Additionally, you can attach special hooks on the stairs for a more reliable fixing it
Usually, the ladders are set at an angle of 65-80 degrees to the vertical surface on which it rests.
If the ladder is set at an angle of 75 degrees or more, it must have an additional fastening at the top.
High ladder must have hooks at their upper ends. They engage the support structure. This allows the ladder does not fall during wind or accidental shock. Therefore, you can work on it quietly.
Practical ladder leaning against the vertical plane
Equilibrium ladder depends on the installation. Correctly the oversight of the ladder to the vertical plane does not drop during operation. In this case, the work will proceed without incident. You need to know the safety requirements and become familiar with them in advance.
Stairs must be attached to the wall at a certain angle.
Rules for installing and using ladders made public in a document in the form of instructions. They provide labor protection. All work must be in accordance with the instructions.
To the ladder did not fall and not staggered, it must be set at a certain angle to the wall
Construction work, which are associated with the use of ladders, include a number of rules:
- Workers must be familiar with the instruction;
- To use these instruments are 18 years or older;
- Do not use the defective or damaged structures;
- Odnokolennye design should meet the GOST 26887-86.
Stages of work: a ladder with their hands
For the manufacture of a ladder to a minimum of knowledge and skills. Ladder can be made with your own hands. Homemade ladders can last for a long time. Their use for manufacturing drawings, in which all the dimensions calculated.
At the plant, such products are tested for strength and should meet the GOST.
Manufacture stairs can be their own hands, the main thing - to prepare in advance metal profiles and other tools for the job
We produce stairs with his hands in several stages:
- Prepare metal profiles or wooden blocks of a certain size for steps;
- We are making the marks on the two supporting elements for steps;
- Mount stage (kick) to the support members from two sides at the same distance.
Your ladder ready. To do it, you will need a small amount of tools, materials, money and time.
Staircase 13 meters in length the charge of the wall: how to put
If the ladder has a length of 13 meters and the charge of the wall at a distance of five meters, it is not difficult to figure out at what distance from the ground will be in the upper end.
The length of the ladder - the hypotenuse, and the distance from the wall to the bottom of the stairs - leg.
To find the second leg, you should use the Pythagorean theorem.
Therefore, the upper end of the ladder will be located at a distance of 12 meters from the ground.
If you do not know how far away the ladder should be placed, then the need to make simple calculations
Can calculate the distance to any ladder, using this theorem. And then calculate a secure tilt angle.
High ladders are used to perform electrical installation works, which are produced at a high altitude. They can be up to 20 meters. Stairs to the LSA platform needed to perform the work at high altitude. You can buy ladders of any construction in 2017 in the online store services, because now the age of modern technology.
The design and apparatus ladders
Ladder - simple device. It is possible to produce on their own, using wood or metal profiles. Most durable ladders are made of aluminum.
Quickly and easily you can make yourself a ladder made of wood
The design of ladder consists of two elements:
- Steps (bars);
- Two supporting elements (string).
Width ladders 0.4-0.6 m and often met length - 2 meters.
Before operating the stairs, you should check its condition. Verification is needed to assess how much weight the ladder stand. If the structure does not break down under heavy load, the device is sturdy and a ladder can be safely used for the job.
Different types of ladders
Types of stairs there are different designs. But the most common design - a model that has a straight shape and fixed size. It has in its structure two bowstring and steps, which are attached to them. Steps equidistant and parallel to each other.
Main features: the ladder should be a robust and stable construction.
If it has the described properties and set at the desired angle, the human knock down the stairs with a small thrust is almost impossible.
There are several types of ladders, which should pick up to your personal taste and design quality
Types of ladders:
- Not folding model;
Foldable ladder has a number of parts (2-3 pieces), which are fixed to each other by hinges. Such models have compact construction. They appear in the form of a block in the folded position and take up little space. If necessary, the unit can be expanded, and it turned into a ladder.
Retractable stairs are several sections. The advantages of these ladders is that you can self-regulate their height.
As mounted ladder with their hands (video)
Ladder used in different spheres of life. They are needed in everyday life and professional activities. Ladders have a simple construction. Therefore, to make this product you can own, following certain rules. This will require a minimum of knowledge, materials and tools.
Proper ladder (photo examples)