Evacuation staircase: the basic requirements for construction
Evacuation stairs - a mandatory element of design of any public zdaniyaEvakuatsionnye ladders are robust. They are the most reliable and secure. During a fire, earthquake and other emergency situations, they provide a safe person out of the building. This ladder should be provided in terms of the drawing, in which the building is erected. Its location depends on the design and size of the building. There are certain rules. By using them, make installation of stairs. Requirements strictly taken into account during construction.
What are the evacuation stairs in public buildings
Mandatory evacuation stairs design, which should be in a public building. In apartment buildings, they are essential. They provide a safe descent and out of the building during a fire, and other emergency situations.
At the design stage it is thought out every detail of the stairs.
The main purpose of evacuation stairs - a safe descent of people from each of the floors in case of emergency
Evacuation ladder set:
- In schools and kindergartens;
- In factories and industrial plants;
- In multi-storey buildings of different types.
With these constructions visitors, employees or tenants can safely leave the premises without endangering their lives. Another evacuation stairs are output if there is no separate back door of the building.
If the building has more than three floors, such a ladder have to be included in the plan drawing. Without her presence construction can not operate - it is contrary to the rules of fire safety.
What should be the height of the emergency stairs
The type of stairs and the building depends on its height. Height adjustable technical rules in which all prescribed dimensions. In the design and construction of the building, all regulatory requirements and take into account the need to comply with GOST.
All the main parameters of evacuation stairs are strictly regulated by GOST
The height of the ladder is between 1.9 m (mesh) or more. Emergency exits in the technical floors must have a height of 1.8 m.
Height of stair consists of the number of stages and riser. Their number is also governed by the rules.
Stage must have a height of not more than 0,22 m. This requirement must be complied with SNIP building.
ladder slant on escape routes: the basic requirements
Sloping marches for different ladders is a specific value. The overground floors it has a value of 1: 2. In preschools ladder slant on escape routes should not exceed 45 degrees. And for other public buildings - 60 degrees.
Optimal slope stairs on escape routes is 1: 1. It may be more, but should not exceed 1: 2.
Acceptable stair slope is calculated based on the total formula.
Internal evacuation stairs in public buildings
Internal evacuation ladders used in public buildings of various types and purpose. Fabricated structures made of metal or concrete. Reinforced concrete, concrete or steel construction is resistant to fire.
Do not use wood, slippery and toxic materials for the manufacture of internal emergency stairways.
Such ladders coated with refractory material - a paint.
Evacuation stairs are manufactured only from refractory or non-combustible materials
Inner stairs have a simple structure. They should have a smooth and comfortable level.
There are two types of internal stairs:
- Installed in the stairwell;
- Have an open structure.
Internal stairs should have good bandwidth, which depends on the width of the march. It is designed for a certain number of people. The width should be at least 0.7 m. A step height of not more than 22 cm, width 25 cm steps.
The movement of people in case of fire can be carried out on the staircase, which established evacuation stairs. This is a concrete staircase.
Evacuation outer metal ladders
Evacuation stairs have a solid outer fixed structure which passes precipitation. Snow, mud, sand, water should not accumulate on the steps of the stairs.
Used for fencing railing. They are made of stainless steel, metal pipes. Construct ladder coated anticorrosion material - a special paint.
Metal - the most commonly used material for the manufacture of fire ladders
Materials that are used in the manufacture of emergency external stairs:
- The beams are made of profiles or pipes (steel);
- For steps and handrail are suitable sheets of expanded metal, CTL and reinforcing bars.
Lathing (PVL) have a lattice structure that has the ability to self-cleaning. During operation, they should not be ice.
During emergencies, people forget about safety precautions during the descent of the ladder. Therefore, they should not be slippery or dirty to a man fell during the descent. Metal steps of blowing exhaust sheets have, due to its lattice structure. Because of this precipitation does not remain on the surface of the steps.
Public multi-storey buildings should have several emergency exits (from different parts) that lead to the metal exterior stairs.
The width of evacuation staircase for different types of buildings
The width of evacuation staircase for a variety of buildings registered in SNIP. It should be optimal to ensure the safe exit from the building a certain number of people.
The width of evacuation stairs should not be less than the established norm.
For different types of buildings stair width of its own and can be:
- 135 mm;
- 120 mm;
- 90 mm.
The width of the ladder depends on the maximum number of people that can simultaneously be in the building
The first width of the stairs is used for buildings, if the number of people on the floor is more than 200. Such evacuation ladders installed in theaters, clubs, health centers and large hospitals.
Ladders 120 mm is set for other public buildings. These ladders are not intended for the evacuation of large numbers of people. A ladder with a width of 90 mm are used for the other cases.
The width of the landing to be not less than the width of the march: the same or more.
Requirements for evacuation stairs of the third type
By the evacuation stairs high demands. Their construction must be convenient and safe device. Types of stairs, there are different, so the requirements for them are different. Their use for manufacturing drawing.
External escape stairs must have railings to protect people from falling from a height.
TTC (typical flow chart) is used to assemble metal stairs. Installation of the entire structure is done manually it is for her. Then, a ladder test and a test of strength.
The most common evacuation stairs - stairs is the third type
Mandatory requirements for evacuation outside stairs third type:
- There may be only sustainer;
- The distance from the window to the ladder - 1 meter;
- The width of the tread is 250 mm;
- step height should be no more than 220 mm;
- Ladders must have barriers of height 1.2 m;
- Marches between fences and handrails must be a gap - at least 7.5 cm.
Periodically check evacuation stairs and prepared cost estimates for repairs. It stipulates that the need to replace and in what quantity.
Metal evacuation exterior stairs: types of designs
Metal evacuation outer ladders can have a complex or simple construction. Designing stairs responsible and important moment, so its performance using drawings, taking into account the size and structure of the building itself.
Evacuation exterior stairs are divided into the following types:
- On the string;
- Frameless rails;
- Fire of metal stringers.
Any exterior staircase should not only be safe and perform their functions, but also look aesthetically pleasing.
Apparatus evacuation stairs: design trehmarshevaya
Evacuation stairs consist of a certain number of stages, platforms, railings.
Enclosures should be optimal height not less than 1.2 m. The enclosure may be present on one side only. A fence as the second side wall then acts.
Evacuation stairs of several marches most convenient and safe in operation
Trehmarshevaya ladder should include three to sixteen steps. Such designs include in its membership alternating marches. Trehmarshevye include three march, are disposed within one floor.
Trehmarshevaya design consists of the following elements:
- Two stages of fastened together;
- Parallel beams.
The beams have a certain angle, which is registered in the requirements of GOST and SNiP.
Evacuation route may use the roof of the building. But, in this case the roof area should be exploited and specially equipped.
As mounted evacuation staircase (video)
Evacuation staircase - a design that is operated at the time of the fire, smoke, earthquake. Therefore, the design of their strictly on demand. Stairs tested for durability and periodic inspections of the suitability. The main requirement: they must be safe and withstand large flow of people.
Proper evacuation staircase (photo examples)