Classification of fire escapes in accordance with GOST 53254-2009
In the production of fire ladders strictly adhere GOSTaKonstruktsiya GOST 53251 - this evacuation stairs with rigidly interconnected by transverse supporting stages consisting of flights and sites rigidly fastened together.
Design of fire escapes GOST R 53254 2009
According to GOST 53254-2009 for fire ladders adopted certain classification.
- Metal fire vertical ladder, such ladders often installed on the outside of buildings and represent a metal structure consisting of two vertical withs interconnected stages. Such stairs often lead to the roof of the building. Other joints and mounting elements may be sharp corners and any protrusions.
- All items must be firmly connected (occupational safety), and attached to the wall of the building, the construction must be undercoated and painted with a special paint.
- Evacuation fire ladders (sample LCU) consist of reinforced concrete structures, which consist of two parallel withs connected to the supporting stages. This design is set at a certain angle. Mounted on the supporting beams to the wall.
Stairs made according to GOST R 53254 2009, meet all modern quality standards
Also, according to the GOST, fire escapes must withstand the statistical burden for a long time, and it should not cause accelerated deformation of all the elements.
Such designs include a metal fence which must also withstand a certain load. Inspection of ladders for damage in accordance with GOST 53254 2009 must be carried out once a year, if the detected damage should be repaired, and then to test the strength of the whole structure. for testing the responsibility should be assigned to a specific organization, having everything you need for this.
Description of fire escapes on GOST
GOST - a national standard, which was developed by different organizations that specialize in certain types of activity. Thus, according to certain state standards, manufactured by enterprises Special fire escapes, which include metal vertical and march stairs, platforms and railings to them.
These stairs are installed permanently on the buildings or inside them, and serve for the evacuation of people and for firemen and rescuers.
Away describes all the features of construction fire ladders
- The requirement of GOST are applied on the stairs design stage, and it regulates the rules of acceptance and commissioning of such structures, regulates the methods of inspection and testing necessary structures, rules and procedures for evaluating the quality of the assembly and emergency stairs.
- GOST regulates the dimensions of stairs, so for evacuation stairs step width must be equal to 0.25 m, the width of the staircase itself is not less than 0.9 m, 1.2 m height fencing. If the height of the vertical lift of up to 20 m, then apply vertical firemen stairs, if the height is greater than 20 m, installed FLOATING with fencing.
There are many nuances, which regulates the Standard, for example, is allowed to make the lower part of the fire escape sliding while the slide is in an extended state to be held securely in place, and the mechanism should contribute to the rapid bringing ladders to a working state.
Specifications and description fire metal stairs in accordance with GOST 53254-2009
State Standard 53254-2009 applies to fire escapes, including the mid-flight and vertical ladders, as well as the evacuation stairs, lay-bys and fences. These stairs are installed outside the building and inside.
The visitors are painted in detail all the characteristics of fire ladders
Also, the state standard regulates the technical characteristics of fire and evacuation stairs:
- The inclination angle sustainer fire ladder on average is 45 degrees, the interval from stage to stage of about 20 cm, the width of the steps themselves necessary in the range of 20 cm, the width of the staircase is less than 50 cm, height of barriers should be at least 1 m.
- Vertical fire ladder also designed and manufactured according to the same GOST, distance between the steps must be at least 350 mm from the ground height should be no more than 1.5 m, and the width of the staircase must be at least 0.8 m. In such stairs made to establish a semi-circular enclosure with a radius of no more than 40 cm, and the rounding in degrees should be 45-60 degrees.
Also, according to GOST, stairwells provides installation sites, whose width should be at least 0.5 m, and the height of the protective device -. 1 m flooring platforms made of metal.
height from the ground to the requirements of the fire escape
During the construction of a multistory building or another building, a mandatory requirement in the design and construction - providing evacuation of people in case of fire. Most often, these stairs are installed outside the building, and they are divided into vertical and march, march stairs, in turn, is equipped with pads and guards.
In addition, a fire escape must meet certain requirements:
- Normal fire vertical ladder must be installed on the building at a height of no more than 1.5 meters from the ground.
- But, if the ladder plays a role not only fire, but also the evacuation, and it is installed in any child care facility, then in this case, in accordance with the safety standards, the distance from the lower level to the ground should be no greater than the step of steps around the ladder march.
Often, the distance from the earth to the staircase of one and a half meters
Step stages, depending on the ladder structure depends on the inclination angle and height of the steps and the tread width is determined according to the received SNP -. Stair step should be 60-65 cm Thus, the height of fire evacuation stairs in institutions from ground level bound to this value.
In some cases, the stairs are set deliberately higher these parameters, in order to prevent access by unauthorized persons.
In this case, firefighters are used to access the fire escape ladder-hand of attack, folding ladders stick Triplex (3-lap or trehkolenka) ladder or use a retractable three-section ladders, all of these ladders shall comply with GOST 8556.
Basic requirements for the fire escape
Many buildings are set stationary fire escapes, which are subdivided, in turn, on the march and vertical. Vertical ladder on any public building is, above all, for firefighters, and marching can serve as fire-fighting and evacuation.
By the fire escape must meet certain standards:
- In the manufacture of ladders used incombustible material, wood fire ladders are not allowed. If the ladder reaches a height of more than 6 m, then these stairs is required to provide for the fence. Output from the roof ladder must be equipped with a platform whose length is not less than 0.8 m. Roof enclosures should not prevent the exit from the stairs. Weight and mass are not regulated.
- Stairway consists of a rigidly fixed sites or marches, the appointment of such staircases a little different. They may be open or evacuation fire escapes, which may be up to 80 degrees inclination. Evacuation stairs are installed at least 1 m away from windows and blank walls.
All fire escapes before the start of their operation tested by using a special device
Apart from the above, there are other standards for fire escapes, the height and width of the steps, the width of the stairs themselves, the height of fences, the width and length of platforms, what is the number of storeys of the building (up to a floor pulls out), which reaches such a ladder.
Install ladders on the basis of the calculation, a ladder for every 150-200 m. On this basis, the number is calculated on the building.
There should be no obstacles to escape routes. All external elements should be kept in good condition, and once a year a survey design, and then draw up a statement about the suitability or unsuitability of them for further use.
Forms and requirements for fire escapes
Fire escapes, based on their names, must ensure the work of firefighters.
Fire escapes may vary in size, type and design of the material from which they are made
There are several types of fire escapes, subdivided into types:
- Ladder vertical fire that has no barriers, has a width of 0.6 m, if there is space, then its size is not less than 1.2 m, the lift amount of such ladder should not exceed 6 m. If the ladder with guardrails, then it is allowed lifting to a height of 20 m, the width of the object - 0.8 meters.
- Fire stairway, 0.9 m wide, has a slope of 40-45 degrees, the rise of the steps 200 mm and width 250 mm. The enclosure for a ladder is to be not less than 1.2 m.
Every fire escape should be checked once a year, as well as to carry out its testing, if the ladder is damaged and can not withstand the load during the tests carried out its dismantling. After the project is done in accordance with the requirements of the fire, and drawing, and, after cost estimates, performed the construction of a new staircase.
Overview: fire escapes GOST 53254 2009 (video)
During the construction area should be fenced and posted with appropriate name or sign - marking construction. After the construction of the staircase test is carried out and, if everything is in order, and it meets all the requirements, performance characteristics allow for operation.