Basic construction of staircases and description thereof: 3 species
Even the most simple in design ladder can beautifully complement the interior komnatyLestnitsa is only just to be able for it to climb or descend, but at the same time, construction of stairs, as well as forms, there are many options. To choose the most optimal variant of the stairs should be a competent specialist.
Different designs of stairs
Stairs - is not only a necessity, but also an original design, visual appeal, and, in some cases, they may even be a kind of decoration.
To date, there are different ladders, you need to choose based on the features and size of the room
In this case, there are different types and designs of stairs:
- By appointment all the stairs are divided into several main groups - intercommunication, entrances staircases, working ladder, as well as special, in-house, Swedish design, serve to design, etc. Thus, stairs are manufactured, depending on the requirements, from wood, metal, composite materials, concrete, often combined together materials.
- Differ in structure staircases, it may be spiral staircase odnomarshevaya, mnogomarshevaya, foldable, circular, or with intermediate pivoting platforms etc.
- Distinguish staircases also on the structure of its elements, they may be closed or open type, and vary in form of steps.
Stairs, there are many kinds and types, ranging from simple structures to complex engineering structures. Complex types of stairs is best to design and calculate special utilities, for example arhikad.
Supporting structures stairs: General description
To ready the ladder successfully operated and maintained not only your weight but also the weight of moving people on it, it is necessary not only to calculate the load, but also to choose the most optimum support structure.
Before installing the ladder in the room, you should calculate in advance the maximum load and to choose the right design
Different designs of stairs, which, in turn, consist of several main elements:
- One of the most reliable and easy-bearing elements of the ladder are stringers, is the carrier beam, on which are stacked stage. There bearing stringer element in her stage attached end, but after a few years of operation, the steps may become loose and will creak.
- Bearing metallic elements - Bolz, they are interconnected and stage are the main bearing member.
- Interconnected STAIR using pads or rotary direct, we can say that the site is also, in its way, carrying the elements of the assembly.
It is still under construction house or other object where it is supposed ladder placement, consider what form it will, and, in accordance with this, choose the type of support element.
modular staircase design: description and characteristics
It so happens that, after the main construction phase, there is a need to install a staircase leading from one floor to another, and not to redo all the work done in the house for the sake of the stairs, the best option is to install the assembly. Most often, in this case, a modular system, which are interconnected by the principle of design. They are metal parts, which consist of two elements: the pipe and welded thereto a metal plate which serves for fastening steps. Interconnected parts, can justify the stairs, which carries the stage, fences and other structures, such types of ladders are the most easy to assemble and does not require any special knowledge and skills.
Popular are modular designs, as they are practical and easy to install
In addition to these modular structures, there are other options:
- The national team of spiral staircase - is the metallic modules that consists of barrels, washers, nuts and studs. Is it just, first set barrel and fastened to the floor, it is threaded stud on the stud strung stage and secured nut and washer. The upper part of the pillar is also attached to the overlap. Once installed railings.
- Stairs on the metal kosour - they may be of channel or I-beam. And they are made of lightweight prefabricated metal, which can also be collected, as a constructor.
This team ladder on the supports can even collect their own hands, using the necessary instructions and diagrams. But, before that you must first development in a project company, and then the production of load-bearing elements of the desired size.
Smart design ladder to the second floor
With the construction of two-storey house, it is necessary to do the ladder, to be able to move between floors. More often than not, in a private home makes the wooden staircase leading to the second floor, which may be straight or with a turntable at 90 or 180 degrees, and, most often, is a team of design.
Original and beautiful interior spaces will look wooden staircase to the second floor
But before you put the ladder requires accurate measurements to be made on them are different parts:
- The construction of wooden stairs, depending on the type, can consist of a few basic elements, it supports (stringers, string), which is already mounted stage, as well as of the sites (if any), and other elements;
- More elaborate staircase can be additionally equipped with risers, legs, and, of course, railing made of different columns and balusters.
Once all the elements are made, they should be delivered to the installation site and to gather together, as a designer, connecting first carrier elements, and then everyone else.
All parts are connected by means of wood glue, screws, nails, etc.
Types of staircases to constructions and their description
Types of ladders are different, they can be both primary and secondary. The very staircase consists of inclined marches, platforms, fences and railings. In a large high-rise building stairs are built in compliance with the rules SNIP.
View of the staircase designers recommend sized according to the space where it will be mounted
There are other types of ladders that are being built in multi-storey buildings, and not only:
- Fire escapes, they must meet certain requirements - they must be made of metal, the base metal of the sills and the steps of the iron rods. Proper fire escape is located at a distance from each other in the 150-200 meters, and set them usually buildings with a height of over 10 meters.
- In multi-storey buildings are usually installed reinforced concrete stairs connected to playgrounds, they need to have, both natural and artificial lighting. The height, width and angle, and certain dimensions are governed by building code snip.
- Auxiliary stairs are designed to communicate with any job site or for lifting on any equipment, they usually have a fence and, if necessary, lighting.
Other types of stairs, for example, wood is widely used in the construction of private homes, cottages, they can have different designs - classic, spiral, modular, and even different and original cantilever design.
Optimal design of the outer staircase
Sometimes you need to make a ladder outside the house in the extension of saving space or for other reasons, such as an emergency exit. This design can sometimes be the only correct one.
Ladder in the street, which is designed to lift to the second floor, should be not only practical, but also safe
During the construction of the outer stairs, you should consider the requirements for this type of stairs, taking into account design features.
- Ensure the safety of the movement to be reliable and durable, and thus should be competent binding to the building. They can be odnomarshevye half-pace, etc., as well as direct and turning.
- They can be profiled, set parallel to the facade, front, at an angle of 90 degrees with respect to the facade.
The shape of the pad can be rectangular, square or even oval. The most simple ladder of this type - it is the entrance to the house.
Types and construction of stairs (video)
Due to the fact that the external staircase as little as possible exposed to rain, it is best to equip a canopy top, or even make a completely closed design. This improvement will allow to safely move the ladder during inclement weather, and this ladder does not require cleaning from snow in winter.